Major of Biological Information Systems
|Subject name||Content of lecture|
Protein’s function is closely related to the shape of protein molecules. Three-dimensional structure of protein is determined by its amino acid sequence, which is derived by transcription and translation from the DNA sequence. When proteins fail to achieve their functional structures, several human disorders including amyloidosis occur due to the deposition of misfolded proteins. In this lecture, I will review the structure determination of proteins by NMR, and then discuss the structure and function relationships of various proteins. Furthermore, the protein misfolding and amyloidosis will also be reviewed in the lecture.
Most of the living systems from uni-cellular organisms to mammals recognize appropriate timing for behaviors by their endogenous clock system (i.e., the circadian clock). It has recently shown that the clock oscillation is driven by intracellular “clock gene”-transcriptional/translational feedback loops, which may eventually produce cellular rhythmic activities and ultimately behavioral rhythms, such as seen in our sleep-wake cycles. The specific aim of this lecture includes how the molecular clock works in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the tiny neuronal nucleus which contains master circadian clock in mammals. To manifest current issues on this topic, the lecture provokes students’ discussion whether the outputs from the circadian clock use electrical activity of SCN neurons or humoral factors secreted from SCN neurons based on several controversial results which have been published in the top end international journals.
Protein post-translational modification (PTM) plays a key role in functional proteomics; PTM regulates localization, activity and interaction with other cellular molecules. Antibodies offer a platform for the analysis of various PTMs, and the need for PTM site-specific antibodies continues to grow with increasing types of PTM per protein. In this lecture, I will start by reviewing the history of monoclonal antibody production, and then proceed to recent investigations of antibody engineering.
|Advanced Biometabolical Engineering||
The conception and technology of investigation for metabolism are important, when investigation of function of products produced by biotechnology, construction of bioreactor and expression of toxicity and safety test of drug. My lecture gives the methods of metabolism investigation, special metabolism pathway participated in production of useful materials and drug metabolism participated in detoxification and expression of toxicity of drugs.
|Design of Bio-information Devices||
Importance and design methods of the interfaces between bio-systems and electronic systems are lectured as hereunder. 1) Development of novel bio-electronic sensors for medical diagnosis and drug screening etc. 2) Basic research for molecular biology concerning with bio-information systems and its application for development of bio-electronic devices. 3) Development of bio-mimetic and bio-inspired information devices and systems. 4) New technology development for analysis of intracellular and intercellular signaling mechanisms.
|Neural Systems Engineering||
To understand the complex biological systems, it is important to learn about the technology for measurement of biological parameters and mathematics for data analysis to retrieve useful information from them. We will learn about fundamental neuroscience, how to measure brain activities and the data analysis.
|Advanced Biosensing Chip Technologies||
Recent trends, problems and future prospects on novel biosensing technologies, such as biochips, microarray technologies and integrated miniature biosensors, will be discussed.
|Information Engineering in Nervous System||
Living organisms such as animals and humans accept multimodal sensory signals from the environment, integrate them in the central nervous system, and promote some kinds of behaviors adaptive to the circumstance. It is interesting for engineers as well as neuroscientists to know how neurons communicate each other through a neural network in a series of such processes. In consideration of technological application, thus, this lecture provides an overview on the transmission and processing of neural information carried out by the neuron and neural network.
|Tissue and organ engineering||
Researches on producing tissues and organs by engineering approaches have advanced very rapidly. This lecture is focusing on lecturing the backgrounds, state of the art and several issues in the present tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Then, the perspectives of practical and social applications of such technologies in life science research and clinical medicine are discussed.
|Advanced Biochemistry for Organic Molecules||
Functional research for signal transmitters such as bioactive substances and their receptors has rapidly been growing in the fields of neurobiology, endocrinology and immunology. In the present course, I would like to provide some information about the inter- and intra-cellular signaling systems, particularly the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of instinctive behavior and energy homeostasis. I would also like to introduce recent updates on the pheromone-signaling pathways.
|Wakan-yaku Theory Based Integrated Pharmacology||
The theory of Wakan-yaku (Japanese and Sino traditional systematized medical care methods) has the highly systematized treatment methods supported by the long-time history. We will understand the unique viewpoints of the Wakan-yaku by unraveling the classics, and consider the research viewpoints that can be utilized in modern medicine. Most of pure drugs are “inhibitors”, but most of Wakan-yaku works by acting on the natural defense function as activator. A typical example is in the “Shoukanron (Shang HanLun)”, which shows how to deal with infectious diseases such as viruses according to the severity. By understanding the viewpoints of the Wakan-yaku and conducting research using the latest analysis methods, entirely new outcomes will be possible. This lecture will also introduce the methods and theories by the Wakan-yaku for elucidating the intrinsic factors related to functional psychiatric disorders such as depression. In addition, we will understand the significance of the combination of crude drugs in Kampo medicine from a modern pharmacological point of view, and discuss the possibility that the discovery of novel ultra-trace effective activecompounds based on the combination can be a new therapeutic drug from this new point of view.
|Pharmacology and Genetic Engineering||
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action and the science which establishes the base of medication. In order to understand the relationship between biological processes and therapeutic agents, the basal knowledge of anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, cell and molecular biology, gene and chemistry is required. In this lecture, recent investigations, problems, and future prospects about pharmacology and genetic engineering will be discussed.
|Cell stress biology||
In order to adapt stressful conditions, cells have developed cellular stress response systems. One of these is endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which is defined as accumulation of unfolded proteins. ER stress induces a coordinated cytoprotective program called unfolded protein response (UPR). If the stress is beyond capacity of the adaptive machinery, cells undergo cell death. In this lecture, the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular responses to ER stress, heat stress and mechanical stress are reviewed.
Proteins are necessary for virtually every activity in our body. Our bodies must be able to produce the many proteins needed for growth, replacement, and repair. Meanwhile, unwanted proteins must be degraded and removed. Therefore, the balance between the protein synthesis and the protein degradation determines amount of proteins. Aberrant balance of protein metabolism causes severe diseases and death. In this lecture, I will review how proteins are produced and degraded in the cell. Furthermore, I will discuss recent advancements of artificial regulations of the protein metabolism.